2021知到答案 Basic Chemistry 基础化学 智慧树网课章节测试答案
1、选择题:Solids have a __________ shape and are not appreciably __________.
答案: 【definite, compressible】
2、选择题:The symbol for the element potassium is __________.
3、选择题:The SI unit for mass is __________.
4、选择题:The temperature of 25°C is __________ in kelvins.
5、选择题:The density of silver is 10.5 g/cm3. A piece of silver with a mass of 61.3 g would occupy a volume of __________ cm3.
6、选择题:The correct result of the molecular mass calculation for H2SO4 is ________. 4 × 15.9994 + 32.066 + 2 × 1.0079
7、选择题:There are __________ significant figures in the answer to the following computation: (29.2 – 20.0) (1.79 × 105)/1.39
8、选择题:Of the following, __________ is the smallest mass.
B:2.5 × 1010 ng
C:2.5 × 109 fg
D:2.5 × 10-2 mg
E:2.5 × 1015 pg
答案: 【2.5 × 109 fg】
9、选择题:Accuracy refers to __________.
A:how close a measured number is to infinity
B:how close a measured number is to other measured numbers
C:how close a measured number is to the calculated value
D:how close a measured number is to the true value
E:how close a measured number is to zero
答案: 【how close a measured number is to the true value】
10、选择题:In which one of the following numbers are all of the zeros significant?
1、选择题:A certain mass of carbon reacts with 13.6 g of oxygen to form carbon monoxide. __________ grams of oxygen would react with that same mass of carbon to form carbon dioxide, according to the law of multiple proportions?
2、选择题:Which statement below correctly describes the responses of alpha, beta, and gamma radiation to an electric field?
A:Both alpha and gamma are deflected in the same direction, while beta shows no response
B:Both alpha and beta are deflected in the same direction, while gamma shows no response
C:Alpha and beta are deflected in opposite directions, while gamma shows no response
D:Both beta and gamma are deflected in the same direction, while alpha shows no response
E:Only alpha is deflected, while beta and gamma show no response
答案: 【Alpha and beta are deflected in opposite directions, while gamma shows no response】
3、选择题:__________ and __________ reside in the atomic nucleus.
B:none of the above
C:Neutrons, only neutrons
答案: 【Protons, neutrons】
4、选择题:Which one of the following is not true concerning cathode rays?
A:They impart a negative charge to metals exposed to them
B:They originate from the negative electrode
C:The characteristics of cathode rays depend on the material from which they are emitted
D:They are made up of electrons
E:They travel in straight lines in the absence of electric or magnetic fields
答案: 【The characteristics of cathode rays depend on the material from which they are emitted】
5、选择题:The charge on an electron was determined in the __________.
A:Millikan oil drop experiment
B:cathode ray tube, by J. J. Thompson
C:atomic theory of matter
D:Rutherford gold foil experiment
E:Dalton atomic theory
答案: 【Millikan oil drop experiment】
6、选择题:In the Rutherford nuclear-atom model, __________.
A:the heavy subatomic particles, protons and neutrons, reside in the nucleus
B:the three principal subatomic particles (protons, neutrons, and electrons) all have essentially the same mass and mass is spread essentially uniformly throughout the atom
C:mass is spread essentially uniformly throughout the atom
D:the three principal subatomic particles (protons, neutrons, and electrons) all have essentially the same mass
E:the light subatomic particles, protons and neutrons, reside in the nucleus
答案: 【the heavy subatomic particles, protons and neutrons, reside in the nucleus】
7、选择题:All atoms of a given element have the same __________.
A:number of neutrons
B:number of electrons and neutrons
D:number of protons
答案: 【number of protons】
8、选择题:An atom of the most common isotope of gold, 197Au, has __________ protons, __________ neutrons, and __________ electrons.
A:79, 118, 118
B:79, 118, 79
C:79, 197, 197
D:197, 79, 118
E:118, 79, 39
答案: 【79, 118, 79】
9、选择题:Which combination of protons, neutrons, and electrons is correct for the isotope copper-63, ?
A:63 p+ , 29 n°, 63 e−
B:34 p+ , 29 n°, 34 e−
C:34 p+ , 34 n°, 29 e−
D:29 p+ , 34 n°, 29 e−
E:29 p+ , 29 n°, 63 e−
答案: 【29 p+ , 34 n°, 29 e−】
10、选择题:Isotopes are atoms that have the same number of __________ but differing number of __________.
答案: 【protons, neutrons】
1、选择题:__________ is credited with developing the concept of atomic numbers.
答案: 【Henry Moseley】
2、选择题:Elements in the modern version of the periodic table are arranged in order of increasing __________.
A:number of isotopes
B:average atomic mass
答案: 【atomic number】
3、选择题:The first ionization energies of the elements __________ as you go from left to right across a period of the periodic table, and __________ as you go from the bottom to the top of a group in the table.
C:are completely unpredictable
答案: 【increase, increase】
4、选择题:In general, as you go across a period in the periodic table from left to right: (1) the atomic radius __________; (2) the electron affinity becomes __________ negative; and (3) the first ionization energy __________.
A:increases, increasingly, decreases
B:decreases, increasingly, decreases
C:increases, increasingly, increases
D:decreases, decreasingly, increases
E:decreases, increasingly, increases
答案: 【decreases, increasingly, increases】
5、选择题:Which of the following traits characterizes the alkali metals?
A:existence as diatomic molecules
B:very high melting point
C:the lowest first ionization energies in a period
D:the smallest atomic radius in a period
E:formation of dianions
答案: 【the lowest first ionization energies in a period】
6、选择题:Oxides of the active metals combine with water to form __________.
D:water and a salt
答案: 【metal hydroxides】
7、选择题:An alkaline earth metal forms a compound with oxygen with the formula __________. (The symbol M represents any one of the alkaline earth metals.)
8、选择题:Which non-metal exists as a diatomic solid?
9、选择题:The only noble gas that does not have the ns2np6 valence electron configuration is __________.
A:All noble gases have the ns2np6 valence electron configuration
10、选择题:What is the oxidation number of chromium in [Cr(NH3)4Cl2]Cl __________?
1、选择题:There are __________ paired and __________ unpaired electrons in the Lewis symbol for a phosphorus atom.
答案: 【2, 3】
2、选择题:There are __________ unpaired electrons in the Lewis symbol for an oxygen atom.
3、选择题:The electron configuration of the phosphide ion (P3- ) is __________.
4、选择题:Elements from opposite sides of the periodic table tend to form __________.
A:homonuclear diatomic compounds
B:covalent compounds that are gaseous at room temperature
D:compounds that are gaseous at room temperature
答案: 【ionic compounds】
5、选择题:Determining lattice energy from Born-Haber cycle data requires the use of __________.
A:the octet rule
答案: 【Hess’s law】
6、选择题:How many hydrogen atoms must bond to silicon to give it an octet of valence electrons?
7、选择题:In the molecule below, which atom has the largest partial negative charge __________?
8、选择题:Electronegativity __________ from left to right within a period and __________ from top to bottom within a group.
A:increases, stays the same
C:stays the same, increases
答案: 【increases, decreases】
9、选择题:The Lewis structure of AsH3 shows __________ nonbonding electron pair(s) on As.
B:This cannot be determined from the data given.
10、选择题:The formal charge on carbon in the molecule below is __________.
1、选择题:The correct name for K2S is __________.
答案: 【potassium sulfide】
2、选择题:The correct name for H2SO3 is __________.
答案: 【sulfurous acid】
3、选择题:The correct name of the compound Na3N is __________.
答案: 【sodium nitride】
4、选择题:The ions Ca2+ and PO43- form a salt with the formula __________.
答案: 【Ca3(PO4 )2】
5、选择题:Element M reacts with fluorine to form an ionic compound with the formula MF3 . The M-ion has 18 electrons. Element M is __________.
6、选择题:The conjugate base of HSO4– is
7、选择题:What is the pH of an aqueous solution at 25.0 °C in which [H+] is 0.00250 M?
8、选择题:What is the concentration (in M) of hydronium ions in a solution at 25.0 °C with pH = 4.282?
C:1.66 × 104
D:5.22 × 10-5
E:1.92 × 10-10
答案: 【5.22 × 10-5】
9、选择题:What is the pH of a 0.0150 M aqueous solution of barium hydroxide?
1、选择题:When the following equation is balanced, the coefficients are __________. NH3 (g) + O2 (g) → NO2 (g) + H2O (g)
A:4, 7, 4, 6
B:2, 3, 2, 3
C:4, 3, 4, 3
D:1, 1, 1, 1
E:1, 3, 1, 2
答案: 【4, 7, 4, 6】
2、选择题:When the following equation is balanced, the coefficient of Al is __________. Al (s) + H2O (l) → Al(OH)3 (s) + H2 (g)
3、选择题:When the following equation is balanced, the coefficient of O2 is __________. C2H4O (g) + O2 (g) → CO2 (g) + H2O (g)
4、选择题:Write the balanced equation for the reaction that occurs when methanol, CH3CH (l) is burned in air. What is the coefficient of methanol in the balanced equation?
5、选择题:The balanced equation for the decomposition of sodium azide is __________.
A:2NaN3 (s) → 2Na (s) + 2N2 (g)
B:2NaN3 (s) → 2Na (s) + 3N2 (g)
C:NaN3 (s) → Na (s) + N2 (g) + N (g)
D:2NaN3 (s) → Na2 (s) + 3N2 (g)
E:NaN3 (s) → Na (s) + N2 (g)
答案: 【2NaN3 (s) → 2Na (s) + 3N2 (g)】
6、选择题:The solubility of manganese (II) hydroxide (Mn(OH)2) is 2.2 × 10-5 M. What is the Ksp of Mn(OH)2?
A:4.8 × 10-10
B:2.2 × 10-5
C:4.3 × 10-14
D:2.1 × 10-14
E:1.1 × 10-14
答案: 【4.3 × 10-14】
7、选择题:What is the empirical formula of a compound that contains 49.4 % K, 20.3 % S, and 30.3 % O by mass?
8、选择题:A compound contains 40.0 % C, 6.71 % H, and 53.29 % O by mass. The molecular weight of the compound is 60.05 amu. The molecular formula of this compound is __________.
9、选择题:Magnesium and nitrogen react in a combination reaction to produce magnesium nitride: 3 Mg + N2 → Mg3N2 In a particular experiment, a 9.27 g sample of N2 reacts completely. The mass of Mg consumed is __________ g.
10、选择题:Which of the following reactions is a redox reaction? (a) K2CrO4 + BaCl2 → BaCrO4 + 2KCl (b) Pb22+ + 2Br- → PbBr (c) Cu + S → CuS
A:(b) and (c)
B:(a) and (c)
答案: 【(c) only】
1、选择题:A gas at a pressure of 10.0 Pa exerts a force of __________ N on an area of 5.5 m2.
2、选择题:A gas vessel is attached to an open-end manometer containing a non- volatile liquid of density 0.791 g/mL as shown below. The difference in heights of the is 755 mm Hg. Given that the density of mercury is 13.6 g/mL, the pressure of the enclosed gas is __________ atm. liquid in the two sides of the manometer is 43.4 cm when the atmospheric pressure
3、选择题:A sample of a gas (5.0 mol) at 1.0 atm is expanded at constant temperature from 10 L to 15 L. The final pressure is __________ atm.
4、选择题:A sample of H2 gas (12.28 g) occupies 100.0 L at 400.0 K and 2.00 atm. A sample weighing 9.49 g occupies__________ L at 353 K and 2.00 atm.
5、选择题:A 0.325 L flask filled with gas at 0.914 atm and 19 °C contains __________ mol of gas.
A:1.48 × 10-2
B:1.24 × 10-2
答案: 【1.24 × 10-2】
6、选择题:A sample of gas (1.3 mol) occupies __________ L at 22 °C and 2.5 atm.
D:3.2 × 10-2
7、选择题:A flask contains a mixture of He and Ne at a total pressure of 2.6 atm. There are 2.0 mol of He and 5.0 mol of Ne in the flask. The partial pressure of He is __________ atm.
8、选择题:The root-mean-square speed of CO at 113 °C is __________ m/s.
9、选择题:A sample of N2 gas (2.0 mmol) effused through a pinhole in 5.5 s. It will take __________ s for the same amount of CH4 to effuse under the same conditions.
10、选择题:Using the van der Waals equation, the pressure in a 22.4 L vessel containing 1.00 mol of neon gas at 100 °C is__________ atm. (a = 0.211 L2 atm/mol2 , b = 0.0171 L/mol)
1、选择题:A solution is prepared by dissolving 15.0 g of NH3 in 250 g of water. The density of the resulting solution is 0.974 g/mL. The mole fraction of NH3 in the solution is __________.
2、选择题:The vapor pressure of pure water at 25 °C is 23.8 torr. Determine the vapor pressure (torr) of water at 25 °C above a solution prepared by dissolving 35 g of urea (a non-volatile, non-electrolyte, MW = 60.0 g/mol) in 75 g of water.
3、选择题:The freezing point of ethanol (C2H5OH) is -114.6 °C. The molal freezing point depression constant for ethanol is 2.00 °C/m. What is the freezing point (°C) of a solution prepared by dissolving 50.0 g of glycerine (C3H8O3 a nonelectrolyte) in 200 g of ethanol?
4、选择题:A solution is prepared by dissolving 6.00 g of an unknown nonelectrolyte in enough water to make 1.00 L of solution. The osmotic pressure of this solution is 0.750 atm at 25.0 °C. What is the molecular weight (g/mol) of the unknown solute?
A:5.12 × 10-3
5、选择题:The principal reason for the extremely low solubility of NaCl in benzene (C6H6) is the __________.
A:increased disorder due to mixing of solute and solvent
B:strong solvent-solvent interactions
C:weak solvation of Na+ and Cl– by C6H6
D:hydrogen bonding in C6H6
E:strength of the covalent bond in NaCl
答案: 【weak solvation of Na+ and Cl– by C6H6】
6、选择题:Pairs of liquids that will mix in all proportions are called __________ liquids.
7、选择题:The solubility of oxygen gas in water at 25 °C and 1.0 atm pressure of oxygen is 0.041 g/L The solubility of oxygen in water at 3.0 atm and 25 °C is __________ g/L.
8、选择题:A sample of potassium chlorate (15.0 g) is dissolved in 201 g of water at 70 °C with precautions taken to avoid evaporation of any water. The solution is cooled to 30.0 °C and no precipitate is observed. This solution is __________.
9、选择题:The concentration of lead nitrate (Pb(NO3 )2) in a 0.726 M solution is __________ molal. The density of the solution is 1.202 g/mL.
10、选择题:The concentration of a benzene solution prepared by mixing 12.0 g C6H6 with 38.0 g CCl4 is __________ molal.
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