2021知到答案 英语语言学 智慧树网课章节测试答案

第一章 章节测试

1、选择题:To put it in a simple way, linguistics studies ________, meaning of linguistic units, and the use and interpretation of a sentence in different contexts.
选项:
A:properties of speech sounds
B:combination of speech sounds into a meaningful unit
C:word formation
D:sentence structure
答案: 【properties of speech sounds;
combination of speech sounds into a meaningful unit;
word formation;
sentence structure

2、选择题:To have a scientific language study, we must pursue brevity in analyzing the data and in stating our findings, which can be summarized as the standard of ________.
选项:
A:exhaustiveness
B:consistency
C:economy
D:objectivity
答案: 【economy
3、选择题: Parole refers to the abstract linguistic system shared by all the members of a speech community.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【
4、选择题:The reason for Frenchmen to use cheval and for English to use horse to refer to the same animal is inexplicable.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【
5、选择题:Of speech and writing, modern linguistics regards writing as the primary medium of communication.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【
6、选择题:According to Chomsky, competence is the actual realization of the performance in linguistic communication.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【
7、选择题:Which of the following disciplines are related to applied linguistics?
选项:
A:education
B:psycholinguistics
C:physics
D:geology
答案: 【education;
psycholinguistics

8、选择题:Unlike animal communication systems, human language is ________.
选项:
A:stimulus free
B:stimulus bound
C:under immediate stimulus control
D:stimulated by some occurrence of communal interest
答案: 【stimulus free
9、选择题:________ has been widely accepted as the forefather of modern linguistics.
选项:
A:Chomsky
B:de Saussure
C:Bloomfield
D:John Lyons
答案: 【de Saussure
10、选择题:By saying language is arbitrary, we mean that there is no logical connection between meaning and ________.

选项:
A:word
B:morpheme
C:sound
D:phoneme
答案: 【sound 

第二章 章节测试

1、选择题:What kind of sounds can we make, when the vocal cords are vibrating?
选项:
A:Voiceless consonants
B:Voiced consonants
C:Glottal stop
D:Vowels
答案: 【Voiced consonants;
Vowels

2、选择题:Which one is different from the others according to manners of articulation?
选项:
A:[f]
B:[v]
C:[z]
D:[w]
答案: 【[w]
3、选择题:Which of the following CANNOT be considered as a minimal pair?
选项:
A:but-bus
B:but-bat
C:but-put
D:but-cut
答案: 【but-put 
4、选择题:The sound /z/ can be described with “voiced, ________, alveolar”.
选项:
A:affricate
B:fricative
C:labiodental
D:palatal
答案: 【fricative 
5、选择题:In English, if three consonants cluster together at the beginning of a word, the combination could be the following EXCEPT ________.
选项:
A:[spr]
B:[stj]
C:[skw]
D:[spl]
E:[sks]
答案: 【[stj] ;
[sks]

6、选择题:A phoneme in one language or one dialect may be an allophone in another language or dialect.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【
7、选择题:The speech sounds which are in complementary distribution are definitely allophones of the same phoneme.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【
8、选择题:Broad Transcription is intended to symbolize all the possible speech sounds, including the minute shades.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【
9、选择题:The initial sound of “peak” is aspirated while the second sound of “speak” is unaspirated. They are allophones.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【
10、选择题:Phonetic similarity means that the allophones of a phoneme must bear some morphological resemblance.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【

第三章 章节测试

1、选择题:The italicized word in the sentence “They are better fed, better housed, and better clothed than ever before” is a good example of ________.
选项:
A:compounding
B:blending
C:conversion
D:derivation
答案: 【conversion 】[$]
2、选择题:We can classify morphemes into ________.
选项:
A:bound morphemes and free morphemes
B:lexical morphemes and grammatical morphemes
C:derivational morphemes and inflectional morphemes
D:adjective morphemes and numeral morphemes
答案: 【bound morphemes and free morphemes;
lexical morphemes and grammatical morphemes;
derivational morphemes and inflectional morphemes

3、选择题:________ of the four words are good examples of compounding.
选项:
A: hotdog
B:blueprint
C:blackboard
D:mouthful
答案: 【 hotdog ;
blueprint ;
blackboard 

4、选择题:A(n) ________ is the smallest meaningful linguistic unit of language, not divisible or analyzable into smaller forms.
选项:
A:morpheme
B:allomorph
C:word
D:lexeme
答案: 【morpheme 
5、选择题:The word children contains _________ morphemes
选项:
A: 1
B: 2
C: 3
D: 4
答案: 【 2
6、选择题:The italicized word in sentence ________, the italicized part DOESN’T involve conversion.
选项:
A:His smile could not very well mask his anger.
B:He walked carefully so as not to wet his shoes.
C:The teacher told the students to be quiet.
D: The book yellowed with age.
答案: 【The teacher told the students to be quiet
7、选择题:Most prefixes can occur as independent words.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【
8、选择题:Such compounds as quick-frozen, far-fetched, fresh-baked, and long-awaited are  created by “a./ad. + v.-ed”.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【
9、选择题:In American English, compounds are NOT usually written solid as soon as they have gained some permanent status.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【
10、选择题:A compound can be formed by placing any lexical item in front of another.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【

第四章 章节测试

1、选择题:Syntax is the study of how words and phrases are properly formed out of elements of a language.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【
2、选择题:Many syntactic theories have developed in response to generative syntax.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【
3、选择题:In the course of its development, generative grammar gradually shifted its focus from language itself to the native speaker’s knowledge of language.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【
4、选择题:In the generative tradition, language is usually understood to refer to the all the language structures that native speakers can generate.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【
5、选择题:According to Chomsky, I-language refers to a set of sentences a native speaker can use.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【
6、选择题:The sub-component which includes the rules governing word formation is called ________.
选项:
A:morphology
B:phonology
C:semantics
D:pragmatics
答案: 【morphology
7、选择题:________ is to syntax what phoneme to phonology and morpheme to morphology.
选项:
A:Syntactic category
B:Sentence
C:Utterance
D:Meaning
答案: 【Syntactic category 
8、选择题:Among the following categories, ________ are word categories.
选项:
A:VP
B:NP
C:P
D:Adj.
答案: 【P;
Adj.

9、选择题:In the category of CP, letter C stands for ____________.
选项:
A:capital
B:complement
C:curriculum
D:complementizer
答案: 【complementizer
10、选择题:Adverbs in English can be divided into ________.
选项:
A:manner adverbs
B:small adverbs
C:big adverbs
D:sentence-adverbs
答案: 【manner adverbs;
sentence-adverbs

第五章 章节测试

1、选择题:The approach to semantic study that is more concerned with the relationship between linguistic expressions and the phenomena in the world to which they refer may be called ________.
选项:
A:Logical Semantics
B:Linguistic Semantics
C:Formal Semantics
D:Cognitive Semantics
答案: 【Logical Semantics 
2、选择题:The Contextualist View of meaning is based on the presumption that one can derive meaning from observable contexts.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【
3、选择题:Meaning can be studied as ________.
选项:
A:naming
B:concepts
C:contexts
D:behavior
答案: 【naming ;
concepts ;
contexts  ;
behavior

4、选择题:Predication analysis is to break down predications into their constituents: ________ and ________.
选项:
A:head
B:argument
C:predicate
D:complement
答案: 【argument ;
predicate 

5、选择题:The predication of the sentence “Jack is happy” is said to consist of Jack, the _________, and happy, the predicate.
选项:
A:argument
B:predicate
C:predication
D:subject
答案: 【argument 
6、选择题:The sense relations between words can be analyzed in terms of truth conditions.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【
7、选择题:As for gradable antonyms, the denial of one is the assertion of the other.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【
8、选择题:A pair of complementary antonyms is characterized by the feature that the denial of one member implies the assertion of the other.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【
9、选择题:The concept of REFERENCE can be regarded as a connection between the linguistic element and the non-linguistic world of experience.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【
10、选择题:According to the classic semantic triangle suggested by Ogden and Richards, the meaning of a word is the concept connecting the word with the real thing in the world. This concept is called Reference or Thought.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【

第六章 章节测试

1、选择题:All the acts that belong to the same category act share the same purpose or the same illocutionary act, and they are the same in their strength or force.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【
2、选择题:Conversation participants almost always observe the CP and the maxims of the CP.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【
3、选择题:A sentence is grammatical concept, and the meaning of a sentence is often studied as the abstract intrinsic property of the sentence itself in terms of a predication
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【
4、选择题:Utterance is based on sentence meaning; it is the realization of the abstract meaning of a sentence in a real situation of communication or simply in a context.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【
5、选择题:All the utterance that can be made to serve the same purpose may vary in their ________ form.
选项:
A:syntactic
B:semantic
C:grammatical
D:pragmatic
答案: 【syntactic  
6、选择题:The Cooperative Principle is proposed by ________.
选项:
A:John Searle
B:John Austin
C:Paul Grice
D:John Lyons
答案: 【Paul Grice 
7、选择题:The maxim of quantity requires: ________.
选项:
A:Make your contribution as informative as required.
B:Do not make contribution more informative than is required.
C:Do not say that for which you lack adequate evidence.
D:Do not say something that is not relevant.
答案: 【Make your contribution as informative as required.;
Do not make contribution more informative than is required.

8、选择题:Most of the violations of the maxims of the CP give rise to ________.
选项:
A:utterance meaning
B:speech act theory
C:conversational implicatures
D:
all of the options
答案: 【conversational implicatures
9、选择题:The significance of Grice’s CP lies in that it explains how it is possible for the speaker to convey ________ is literally said.
选项:
A:more than
B:less than
C:the same as
D:none of the  options
答案: 【more than  

第七章 章节测试

1、选择题:The following is the clipped words EXCEPT ________.
选项:
A:butch
B:cam
C:fridge
D:info
答案: 【butch 
2、选择题:As a result of the Norman Conquest of 1066, vast quantities of ________ words were added to the English vocabulary.
选项:
A:Roman
B:Latin
C:German
D:French
答案: 【French
3、选择题:Morphological and syntactic changes in English language including the following EXCEPT ________.
选项:
A:change in agreement rule
B:analogic change
C:process of simplification
D:loss of inflections
答案: 【analogic change 
4、选择题:The following are the methods for the addition of new words EXCEPT ________.
选项:
A:blending
B:clipping
C:back-formation
D:meaning shift
答案: 【meaning shift
5、选择题:The meaning of word accident has undergone the process of ________.
选项:
A:widening of meaning
B:narrowing of meaning
C:meaning elevation
D:meaning degradation
答案: 【narrowing of meaning 
6、选择题:The word pioneer used to refer to a foot soldier who cleared the way for any army by falling trees, but now it refers to a person who goes before, preparing the way for others, as a scientist doing exploratory work. This process of change is called ________.
选项:
A:widening of meaning
B:narrowing of meaning
C:meaning elevation
D:meaning degradation
答案: 【meaning elevation 
7、选择题:Which of the following words are formed by clipping?
选项:
A:sci-fi
B:docudrama
C:script
D:comfy
E:bookkeep
答案: 【script ;
comfy 

8、选择题:Only words of the same parts of speech can be combined to form compounds.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【
9、选择题:All the former job titles with –man have been replaced by the new job titles with –person.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【
10、选择题:The change of grammar is caused by economy of memory.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【

第八章 章节测试

1、选择题:Someone who can speak many languages is called ________.
选项:
A:Polyglot
B:Bilingualist
C:Linguist
D:Genius
答案: 【Polyglot 
2、选择题:The social factors in sociolinguistic studies do include ________.
选项:
A:Educational background
B:Occupation
C:Social hierarchy
D:Social class
答案: 【Educational background ;
Occupation ;
Social hierarchy ;
Social class

3、选择题:Ethnic dialects are mainly spoken by a less privileged population, such as the ________.
选项:
A:British English
B:Queen’s English
C:Black English
D:American English
答案: 【Black English 
4、选择题:Code-switching can happen in ________.
选项:
A:Hongkong
B:Macao
C:Germany
D:Belgium
答案: 【Hongkong;
Macao;
Germany;
Belgium

5、选择题:From different perspectives, sociolinguistics may be classified into ________.
选项:
A:Sociolinguistics and sociology of language
B:Macro-sociolinguistics and micro-sociolinguistics
C:Broad sociolinguistics and narrow sociolinguistics
D:Sociolinguistics and social dialects
答案: 【Sociolinguistics and sociology of language;
Macro-sociolinguistics and micro-sociolinguistics;
Broad sociolinguistics and narrow sociolinguistics

6、选择题:Gender varieties arise because language, as a social phenomenon, is closely related to social attitudes.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【
7、选择题:Macro-studies are to look at society as a whole and consider how language functions in it and how it reflects the social differentiations.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【
8、选择题:For a sociolinguist, code-switching means the switch made by a speaker or writer from one language or language variety to another.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【
9、选择题:Greek does not belong to Indo-European Language Family.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【
10、选择题:In sociolinguistics, code-switching is the use of more than one linguistic variety in a manner consistent with the syntax and phonology of each variety.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【

第九章 章节测试

1、选择题:Language is heavily tinted with its culture, and culture also affects its people’s language uses.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【
2、选择题:Acculturation means a continuing process whereby an individual acquires a personal identity and learns the norms, values, behavior, and social skills appropriate to his or her social position.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【
3、选择题:The appearance of loan words is one typical example of cultural diffusion.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【
4、选择题:Language and culture are closely related to each other, and it is extremely difficult to separate the two.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【
5、选择题:The ignorance of cultural differences will not necessarily create barriers in learning the target language and in communication.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【
6、选择题:Denotative meaning refers to the meaning that isn’t stated but implied; the implication of a word, apart from its primary meaning.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【
7、选择题:As the saying goes “A man’s home is his castle”, western people place a high value on ________.
选项:
A:compliment
B:proverb
C:privacy
D:addressing
答案: 【privacy
8、选择题:Successful communication occurs when the listener can ________ from the speaker’s point of view.
选项:
A:smell things
B:understand the ways of knowing the world
C:see things
D:sense the feelings to given issues
答案: 【understand the ways of knowing the world;
see things;
sense the feelings to given issues

9、选择题:In cross-cultural communication, ________ are key points to mutual understanding and can serve as the bridge that will help us transcend cultural barriers.
选项:
A:honesty
B:nationalism
C:sensitivity
D:sincerity
答案: 【honesty;
sincerity

10、选择题:A linguistic sign may simultaneously have ________ meanings which are bound with cultural encodings or associations.
选项:
A:denotative
B:associative
C:ironic
D:connotative
答案: 【denotative;
ironic;
connotative

第十章 章节测试

1、选择题:The common denial that birds are animals among very young children is a typical example of over-extension.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【
2、选择题:Dyslexia refers to the abnormal difficulty in reading and spelling caused by a brain lesion.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【
3、选择题:According to the behaviorist view of language acquisition, ________ and ________ are preliminary or fundamental, and discrimination and generalization are crucial or key to language development.
选项:
A:practice
B:imitation
C:pre-equipped UG
D:inner mechanism
答案: 【practice;
imitation

4、选择题:According to the interactionist view of language acquisition, language development is a result of the complex interaction between ________ and ________.
选项:
A:the human characteristics of the child
B:the reinforcement the child has received
C:the environment in which the child develops
D:the concepts the child has formed about the world
答案: 【the human characteristics of the child;
the environment in which the child develops

5、选择题:Many studies of children’s acquisition sequences and errors in various languages have revealed that children have some ________ for making sense of language information.
选项:
A:grammar principles
B:reinforcement principles
C:operating principles
D:reward principles
答案: 【operating principles
6、选择题:According to Chomsky, human beings are not biologically programmed for language and the language develops in the child with extreme attention and efforts.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【
7、选择题:The innatists argue that children can discover the rules and principles underneath the language by trial and error.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【
8、选择题:The speech contains content words and lacks function elements can be called ________.
选项:
A:caretaker talk
B:child directed speech
C:motherese
D:telegraphic speech
答案: 【telegraphic speech
9、选择题:A child may get confused hearing the color of white used for paper because he originally thought it as the word only for snow. This phenomenon belongs to ________.
选项:
A:analogy
B:over-extension
C:under-extension
D:overgeneralization
答案: 【under-extension
10、选择题:Which of the following is the term meaning repetition of sounds, syllables, or phrases where the speaker cannot “release” the words?
选项:
A:aphasia
B:autism
C:stuttering
D:dysgraphia
答案: 【stuttering

第十一章 章节测试

1、选择题:Interlanguage is defined as an abstract system of learners’ target language system.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【
2、选择题:The goal of contrastive analysis is to predict what areas will be easy to learn and what areas will be difficult to learn.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【
3、选择题:Contrastive analysis involves describing the learners’ interlanguage, then comparing the two forms to locate mismatches.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【
4、选择题:It is generally believed that people learn their first language consciously and acquire their second language naturally.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【
5、选择题:Mistakes often occur when learners fail to perform their competence, suggesting failure in ________.
选项:
A:competence
B:knowledge
C:attention
D:performance
答案: 【performance
6、选择题:________ errors occur when the learner misuses an item because it shares features with an item in the native language.
选项:
A:interlingual
B:intralingual
C:transfer
D:developmental
答案: 【interlingual;
transfer

7、选择题:According to Krashen, ________ and ________ were two independent means or routes of second language learning.
选项:
A:acquisition
B:transfer
C:learning
D:input
答案: 【acquisition;
learning

8、选择题:*“I losed the game.” and “There are ten sheeps.” are illustrations of ________ and performance errors.
选项:
A:overgeneralization
B:cross-association
C:transfer mistakes
D:developmental mistakes
答案: 【overgeneralization
9、选择题:It is generally accepted that successful learners tend to use more strategies and use them more selectively and flexibly.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【
10、选择题:According to contrastive analysis, the greater the differences between L1 and L2, the more frequently the error will occur.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【

第十二章 章节测试

1、选择题:________ produce fast and fluent speech with good intonation and pronunciation but the content of their speech ranges from mildly inappropriate to complete nonsense, often as unintelligible.
选项:
A:Broca’s aphasic
B:The linguistic deprivation
C:The damage on the angular gyrus
D:Wernicke’s aphasic
答案: 【Wernicke’s aphasic
2、选择题:________ is the study of language in relation to the mind.
选项:
A:Sociolinguistics
B:Psycholinguistics
C:Linguistics
D:Semantics
答案: 【Psycholinguistics
3、选择题:The brain is divided into two roughly symmetrical halves, called ________, one on the right and one on the left.
选项:
A:hemispheres
B:cortexes
C:stems
D:cerebrums
答案: 【hemispheres
4、选择题:Which of the following parts of the brain accounts for the human distinctness in the animal world?
选项:
A:neuron
B:brain stem
C:cerebrum
D:cerebral cortex
答案: 【cerebral cortex
5、选择题:Which of the following methods are used to examine the behavior associated with the brain?
选项:
A:SAT
B:CET
C:dichotic listening
D:split brain studies
E:autopsy studies
答案: 【dichotic listening;
split brain studies

6、选择题:Left hemisphere is primarily responsible for language and there are specific language areas within the left hemisphere.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【
7、选择题:It has been proved that the right ear shows an advantage for the perception of linguistic signal.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【
8、选择题:Most right-handed individuals have language represented in the left hemisphere and left-handers have language localization in the right hemisphere.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【
9、选择题:In the priming experiment, both prime and target are stimuli.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【
10、选择题:The priming task tells us that aspects of phonology are automatically activated during word reading.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【

第十三章 章节测试

1、选择题:Which event stands for the formal establishment of cognitive linguistics as a discipline?
选项:
A:The publication of Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things
B:The first International Cognitive Linguistics Conference was held in Duisburg Germany
C:The publication of Metaphors We Live by
D:The first course about cognitive linguistics was set up
答案: 【The first International Cognitive Linguistics Conference was held in Duisburg Germany
2、选择题:In the metaphor “Our car has broken down”, the source domain is?
选项:
A:House
B:Car
C:The house collapses
D:Car collapses
答案: 【House
3、选择题:Which of the following views means that “the choice of the subject of a sentence depends on the degree of the prominence of each element in the context described by the sentence”?
选项:
A:The attentional view
B:The experiential view
C:The prominence view
D:The cognitive view
答案: 【The prominence view
4、选择题:Cognitive linguistics is born on the basis of ________.
选项:
A:Generative grammar
B:The opposing of generative grammar
C:The opposing of the mainstream linguistic conversion
D:
All of the options
答案: 【The opposing of generative grammar;
The opposing of the mainstream linguistic conversion

5、选择题:Both ________ and ________ were written by George Lakoff.
选项:
A:Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things
B:Language and its Structure
C:Metaphors We Live by
D:Foundations of Cognitive Grammar
答案: 【Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things;
Metaphors We Live by

6、选择题:Aristotle’s classical category theory has had a profound impact on ________.
选项:
A:Philosophy
B:Logics
C:Humanities and social sciences
D:Prototype theory
答案: 【Philosophy;
Logics;
Humanities and social sciences;
Prototype theory

7、选择题:The essential feature of the traditional view of the category is the binary opposition.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【
8、选择题:In different cultures, the prototypes of the category “bird” may be different.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【
9、选择题:Metaphors are culture-related.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【
10、选择题:The prototype category‘s philosophical roots are based on family similarity.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【】[/$]

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